Symptoms & Prevention of Asthma

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Asthma is a medical condition where the airway is narrowed and inflamed. An inflamed airway is highly sensitive and can react to things called triggers that are found in the environment. When the airway comes across a trigger, it swells up and produces a lot of mucus making it hard for the person to breathe and get air to the lungs. The muscles around the airway further restrict airflow through tightening.

Asthma symptoms

When this happens, the person will experience asthma symptoms that include

  • Coughing
  • Wheezing
  • Chest tightness
  • Difficulty in breathing
The symptoms of asthma may be mild or severe depending on what the trigger is. The general cause of asthma is not known. However, it may be caused by both genetic and environmental factors. These environmental factors include certain infections or exposure to allergens.

Asthma symptoms can be caused by triggers that include:

  • Tobacco smoke
  • Air pollution
  • Dust
  • Pollen
  • Mold
  • Respiratory infections
  • Physical activity
  • Cold air
  • Allergies to certain foods

Asthma prevention

Asthma does not have a known cure. If you experience asthma symptoms, you need to know how you can manage the symptoms. Managing the symptoms mainly involves staying away from the triggers, and taking prescribed medication to reduce the symptoms when they occur. Here are ways you can prevent asthma symptoms from occurring.

  • Smoke is not good for the lungs and can be a trigger. If smoke from cigarettes is a trigger for you, you should not allow smoking to occur in your house, car or office. Also, avoid going near smoking zones and if you are a smoker, seek help to help you successfully quit as smoking makes asthma worse.
  • You should also avoid exposure to cold air by dressing warmly and avoiding staying out very late.
  • Since respiratory infections are a trigger, avoid getting into contact with people who have colds and coughs. Getting infections from them might worsen your symptoms. Also, practice good hygiene when using things that have been handled by others who suffer from respiratory infections. As an extra precaution, you are advised to get a flu vaccine to boost your immunity and give you protection.
  • You work towards ensuring your environment is allergen proof. You can do this through the following ways:
  • Avoiding going to restaurants that allow smoking or are smoky.
  • Calling ahead and booking a smoke-free hotel room if you are traveling.
  • Bringing your beddings in case the hotel only has down comforters and feather pillows.
  • Buying and using beddings that do not have dust.
  • Cleaning your HVAC system regularly to prevent it from accumulating dust that might be a trigger.
  • Keeping the house dry to avoid mold from growing
  • You can also consider immunotherapy where you get allergy shots to help with the condition. The shots will help your body get used to the allergen, and after some time you might stop reacting to it when exposed.
In case you are exposed to these allergens, you should take asthma medication that will make it easier for you to breathe without straining by relaxing your airway. The medication also reduces the asthma symptoms and prevents them from getting worse. Asthma medication comes in the form of inhalers, shots, tablets, or liquids. The medication is usually prescribed for those who suffer from asthma symptoms to be used in case they get exposed to the triggers.

Benefits of HeartSine

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HeartSineLogo_727_527 You may feel that you are a relatively healthy person as you eat right and exercise on a regular basis. However, there are rare instances when cardiac arrest happens, and in these instances, you need immediate help from emergency services as your life hangs in the balance.

If you happen to be around other people when cardiac arrest happens, there are a few things people can do with a call to 911 being the first thing that is done. Others might try taking your pulse, or check if you are breathing normally. If they can’t find a pulse, they might try to perform CPR or use a portable defibrillator if one was available.

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Unfortunately, most portable defibrillators are used only by EMP; however, thanks to technology making devices more readily available, portable defibrillators like HeartSine have come out and are helping people save others. The use of these portable defibrillators like HeartSine stabilizes a person till medical professionals can arrive upon the scene.

What’s the Cause of Cardiac Arrest?

Our bodies rely on electrical stimulation, which comes from nerve connections within the body. However, the heart is different as it relies on its own electrical stimulator from specialized cells (sinus node) which are in the upper right-chamber (atrium) of your heart. The node generates an electrical impulse that is synchronized with your heart to pump blood to the rest of your body.

When something goes wrong with the sinus node of your heart, it causes the electrical pulses to act improperly either causing your heart to beat too fast or too slow. Often these brief interruptions are meaningless and harmless; however, some types of arrhythmia can cause sudden cardiac arrest.

Most people with a healthy heart don’t have these types of problems as they typically come from an electric shock to the system from a trauma to the chest from accidents or activities that cut off oxygen from an individual. Illegal drugs also can cause an accelerated electrical impulse to the heart that can interrupt the heart cycle.

Other Risk Factors to Contribute to Cardiac Arrest

Most often cardiac arrest is connected to a variety of different lifestyle choices that include:

  • Family history of coronary artery disease
  • A sedentary lifestyle
  • High blood pressure
  • Obesity
  • Drinking too much alcohol or caffeine
  • Low potassium or magnesium levels

You also have to remember that cardiac arrest can happen to those with healthy lifestyles as well. For example, if someone pushes themselves physically too hard in a sport that involves a lot of stamina this can place a great strain on the heart. Many young people across the nation are having cardiac arrest simply because they push themselves too hard.

Having a Safety Net is Vital

Whether you have family history of coronary artery disease, or you have a student in a vigorous sport it’s important that you may be prepared for a case of a cardiac arrest. This is where HeartSine really comes into play and has tremendous benefits.

These benefits include:

  • Affordable pricing
  • Easy to use with both adult and child settings
  • Device advices you what to do
  • Performs an analysis algorithm in order to give the right electrical shock
  • Greatly improve chances of individual’s survival

Whether you are someone who has a history coronary disease, or you’re a healthy athlete who strives to give a 110%; you may have that chance that you suffer from a sudden cardiac arrest. Having an emergency portable defibrillator like HeartSine will give you the best of chance to recover. It’s best to be prepared, and why take a chance?

Benefits of Spirometry

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Image is from Business Wire

Spirometry loosely means the measurement of breath. It is one of the most recommended procedures for individuals suffering from pulmonary problems. Basically, it measures the lung functions in terms of the flow and volume of air that you inhale and exhale. The data is achieved from the test is referred to as pneumotachographs which are used in the diagnosis and assessment of certain conditions like bronchitis, asthma, emphysema, fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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A spirometer aids in the whole process. It measures the volume of the air inspired and expired by the lungs. Besides, it also measures the movement of the inhaled and exhaled air through the lungs. There are many types of spirometers. Most of them are able to identify two kinds of ventilation pattern that may be an indicator of an abnormality in the lungs which are obstructive and restrictive.

The various kinds of spirometers employ varying methods of measuring airflow and volume. They include water gauge, pressure transducer, ultrasonic. A typical spirometer producers two kinds of graphs; the volume-time curve and the flow-volume loop.

Who should undergo the procedure?

Spirometry is not meant for every individual. It is for the following group of the population

  • Those who have trouble with their breathing
  • Individuals who are suspected to have lung infections like emphysema, bronchitis, and asthma.
  • Those who have a chronic lung disorder
  • Those who are under certain medications.
  • Those who are preparing to undergo a complicated surgical procedure. This is to ensure that the lung is in good health during the procedure.
Noteworthy is that children who are not able to comprehend the instructions during the test are not meant to take part in the procedure. In essence, the procedure works best for individuals above the age of six as they are best placed to comprehend instructions. The procedure is done without the employment of sedatives. The procedure typically produces a forced expiratory volume which tells the doctor the largest amount of air an individual can breathe out after breathing in as much air as possible. The patient is showing difficulty in breathing if the recordings are below normal.


There are numerous benefits of using spirometry. To begin with, it exercises your lungs thereby ensuring that it is in the right state of function all through. This is by measuring how well you’re your lungs is able to fill with air and assist in keeping your alveoli inflated. When your alveoli are kept inflated, the lungs exchange the respiratory gases more efficiently. When you follow instructions to the letter, experiencing spirometry benefits is easy. When using an incentive spirometer, you may not reach your goals initially, but that should not be a discouragement. Note that it takes some time to retrain your lungs. Continue using the spirometer to achieve the most out of the spirometry benefits. You may want to track your progress in your treatment journal to ensure consistency.

As helpful as it may seem, spirometry is marred by certain possible complications and risks. Even though it is generally safe, some patients often report dizziness and shortness of breath after the procedure. Individuals who have suffered from heart conditions like heart attack are not supposed to undergo the test since the test demands for significant effort on the part of the patient.

Generally, spirometry is one of the most useful procedures when determining pulmonary dysfunctions and other problems related to the lungs. Above is some useful information you can arm yourself with.

Why EasyOne?

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Overview on EasyOne

Over the past few decades, there has been a flood of original equipment manufacturer (OEM) medical providers entering the market because competition was low and demand was high. At first, many products stayed of high-quality with limited options. Soon multiple options became available with customization being provided as well. However, with the influx of suppliers and cost some medical industry lines lowered the ball in terms of quality.

Some industries within the medical equipment field stayed the course within their products being superior with high-quality as an excellent product drives a well-known brand, so clients could recognize quality that performs for a long period of time. One of the best superior brands that would fall into this category is EasyOne. Today, we will go into further detail why EasyOne excels above the competition. Let’s get started!


EasyOne Product Family

EasyOne products fall within the category of new diagnostic designs. (NDD) Since 1986, Dr. Christian Buess came out with an ultrasound flow sensor that was used in Russia’s space station. This design led to a newer design in 1992 where this was used in medical applications, which led to the foundation of Medizintechnik AG and the EasyOne spirometer was created. In 2000, NDD furthered development for more EasyOne product’s thanks to advancements in technology and scientific discovery.

The values of the EasyOne product family still are based on the most scientific evidence available. Technology has played an inevitable role in the evolution of the EasyOne products as well. Their high-quality products have been established among suppliers and customers alike. Easy one has also made a significant effort to reduce the impact of carbon footprints striving to minimize their environmental impact with how their products are created.

EasyOne products include:

  • EasyOne Air: This is an all-in-one lung function test.
  • EasyOne Pro: This performs a DLCO, spirometry and lung volumes in 20 minutes.
  • EasyOne Pro Lab: You get all the benefits of the EasyOne Pro with multiple-breath nitrogen washout for lung volumes.
  • EasyOne World spirometer: This is one of the most widely used accurate tests you can use anywhere, anytime.
  • EasyOne-Line: This is a portable spirometer test that connects to a PC.
  • Easy on-PC: This spirometry system test connects straight to your smart device for easy use and results.
If you are looking for the most trusted ultrasonic spirometry NDD, then you should always know that you can go to the EasyOne product line. EasyOne is world renown and their sales and brand recognition continue to expand based upon their high-quality scientifically proved devices.

Benefits of OraQuick

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Image is from OraQuick

OraQuick is a home HIV test which has been approved by the United states food and drug and administration and has been proven to be one of the most efficient ways of testing HIV. To take the test, you take an oral swab of the inside of your mouth. The kit shows results within twenty minutes. For more accurate results, take the test after ninety days of exposure.

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Using OraQuick comes with myriad benefits including;

  • It is simple to use since it comes with comprehensive instructions that take you a long way in ensuring the results are as accurate as possible.
  • When it comes to your HIV results, your privacy is paramount, and that’s another area where oraquick bags a plus. Unlike the laboratory test option, you are the only one handling the kit. This translates into diminished societal stigma thus encouraging more individual to opt for HIV test.
  • Testing yourself at home is definitely more convenient since you don’t have to move long distances for tests. This is especially suitable for women who are in their advanced stages of pregnancy.
  • You can make purchases of the kit online and remain anonymous unlike when you walk into a clinic to have the tests. This, too, has worked as an encouragement to individuals who dread social stigma.

How does it work?

Fundamentally, OraQuick gives HIV results based on the antibodies present in the saliva unlike testing the individual’s blood directly as in other kits. The kit is readily available at local pharmaceutical outlets. It functions more like a pregnancy test kit. All you need to do is to swab your upper and lower gum lining before putting the swab into the solution used for the test. An HIV negative result is indicated by one line while two lines indicate a positive result. Most of the time, a positive result will be distressing to the individual. However, there is no need to worry as a hotline number is present to connect you with a counselor for professional services. Again, if the results are positive, it is advisable that you proceed for a follow up at a nearby clinic.

The kit has brought with a lot of concerns. Since its inception, there has been an increase in the number of suicides related to positive HIV results by the kit. Lately, however, people have embraced its use its use and have even made the hotline number their emotional refuge whenever there is a result that is distressing to them.

The effectiveness of Oraquick

It is important to appreciate between OraQuick and other HIV testing kits. Most of the kits available base their results on blood tests carried out by professional. That is the primary difference between oraquick and other kits. Both tests, however, have been proven to be highly effective especially when it comes to testing negative results. Regarding positive results, OraQuick records a 91.7% accuracy test compared to the 99.7 percentage accuracy recorded by other kits. That means that you are more likely to get a false positive with OraQuick compared to other kits.

In a nutshell, OraQuick HIV self-testing kit is a revolution in its respect. It has made it possible for individuals to find out their HIV status at the comfort of their homes and under the cover of anonymity.

Tips to Avoid the Flu

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Flu season is from October through May. While you can get the flu during any time of the year, the most common time to get it is during flu season. If you are unfortunate enough to get the flu, it can have you laid up for a week to 10 days. The symptoms of the flu can make you feel miserable. Some of these symptoms include:

  • A high fever (101 or above)
  • Muscle aches
  • Chills
  • Coughing
  • Stuffy or runny nose
  • Fatigue
Since the symptoms can be so severe and in some cases, the flu can result in serious complications, it is best to avoid getting it. There are a few tips that you should follow if you avoid catching and spreading the flu.

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Get Immunized

Your best defense against catching the flu is to get your flu shot each year. It is important that you get the flu shot every year because, each year, the flu strain is different. There are a few types of flu shots that you can get. The first type is for healthy individuals ages 6 months and over. The high-dose flu shot is for the elderly and anyone who has a compromised immune system. The third type of immunization the is flu mist. This is a spray that goes into the nose. Some people believe that they will get the flu if they get vaccinated. Since there is no live active virus in the vaccine, this is not an issue. The flu mist does contain a live virus, however, it isn’t enough to give you the flu. The vaccine does have some flu-like side effects, however, they last just a day.

Wash Your Hands Frequently

The flu virus can live both in the air and on surfaces. If you touch something that a sick person touched and then you touch your mouth or eyes, you can develop the flu. If you are sick, you can easily pass the flu to someone else if the germs are on your hands. During flu season, you should wash your hands often. If you cannot get to a sink, you should carry around a bottle of hand sanitizer.

Avoid Sick People

If at all possible, you should avoid people who have the flu. Unfortunately, there are some cases where you cannot avoid a sick person. If they are your child or if they live in your home, it can be difficult to avoid them. In these cases, you should wear a mask when you are taking care of the sick person. You should also wipe down commonly touched areas with antibacterial wipes such as the refrigerator door, the bathroom doorknob, the toilet flusher, and the remote control. The less you can keep the germs off of the common areas the better chances you have of staying healthy.

Get Plenty of Sleep

It is recommended that you get 8 hours of sleep each night. When you don’t get enough sleep, it can weaken your immune system, making it easier for you to catch the flu.

Drink Plenty of Fluids

When you are sick with the flu, the doctor will tell you to drink plenty of fluids. Most doctors will also tell you to drink fluids to avoid getting the flu. Staying hydrated will strengthen your immune system. It will also wash away any germs that have entered your mouth.

The best way to treat the flu is to keep from getting it in the first place. If you follow the tips listed above, you have an excellent chance of remaining healthy throughout flu season.

Why Take a Pulmonary Lung Test?

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How to diagnose a respiratory condition properly?

Having a respiratory condition that causes breathing difficulties takes away from living daily life the way an individual deserves. With that said, to properly diagnose a respiratory condition sometimes a doctor or respiratory specialists will have you take a pulmonary function test. Once, the test provides results your doctor can provide the proper treatment plan to relieve the symptoms that are present with your current respiratory condition.

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What is the purpose of the pulmonary function test?

The purpose of the test is to measure the function of your lungs by measuring how well the respiratory system can carry oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the bloodstream and body. Before the test is given, your doctor may recommend that you skip all medications and certain activities for the day. During the test, the doctor will have you sit or stand in a booth and breathe in and out of a mouth piece that takes accurate measurements of air flow and gases. The test usually takes around 30 minutes and is painless.

Why does a doctor make you skip medications and other activities before taking the test?

The reason why is because medications can sometimes provide inaccurate results leading to a poor diagnosis. Your doctor may also ask you to skip on meals before the test is done since a full belly can interfere with the way the lungs function too. Other things you may have to stop before taking the test are smoking, drinking caffeinated beverages, and cardio workouts. After all, these activities can change the way the lungs work causing inaccurate results as well, and this is not something you want when are trying to get a proper diagnosis and treatment plan to end your respiratory suffering.

What types of respiratory conditions can the pulmonary function test help diagnose?

  • COPD
  • Emphysema
  • Asthma
  • Lung Infections
  • Autoimmune disorders of the respiratory system
  • Respiratory allergies
  • Lung fibrosis
  • Scleroderma
  • Lung Cancer

Where does the test occur?

The test occurs at a respiratory specialist office where they have the testing equipment to preform it properly and effectively for an accurate diagnoses. If diagnosing the respiratory condition, you have is still difficult with the pulmonary function test, other testing may be done to help diagnose your condition. Some of those tests include X-rays and blood tests.

End Notes to Keep in Mind

If you are suffering from wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, shortness of breath and dizziness, you may be suffering from a respiratory condition, which can be detected with a pulmonary function test. If you suspect you have a respiratory condition it might be wise to call your doctor for an examination and proper testing to get a proper diagnosis. After all, no one deserves to suffer from a respiratory condition that causes extreme breathing difficulties. It takes away from the enjoyments of everyday life, and life is meant to be lived with as much ease and health as possible.

Symptoms of Hepatitis and its Effects

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Image is from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease – NIH

Hepatitis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the liver. There are three main types of hepatitis: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. There are also other kinds of hepatitis that you can acquire through unique life circumstances.

There’s autoimmune hepatitis in which the immune system attacks the liver and causes inflammation. An autoimmune disorder is essentially when the body’s own immune system winds up attacking your own otherwise healthy cells.
  There’s also alcoholic hepatitis in which heavy and prolonged alcohol use results in inflammation of the liver. Alcoholic hepatitis normally develops only in people who have drank heavily for multiple years or decades. Yellowish skin and a pronounced midsection might be additional symptoms to watch for with alcoholic hepatitis.

Hepatitis D and hepatitis E are two additional, but lesser known, kinds of hepatitis that can nonetheless be extremely serious and pose lifestyle impairments to those who suffer from either condition. Hepatitis D is caused by a viral infection from the hepatitis D virus whereas hepatitis E is a viral infection triggered by exposure to the hepatitis E virus.

All forms of hepatitis are characterized by inflammation of the liver. In this case, inflammation will look like a slight enlargement of the liver as well as redness. Impaired liver function can cause fluid retention and other issues that can lead to serious health problems down the road.

Symptoms of Hepatitis and Effective Treatments

The interesting thing about hepatitis is that for some patients hepatitis can manifest without any symptoms at all. This is called being asymptomatic, although these same people could actually have hepatitis and simply not know that they have hepatitis. It’s important to get checked by a medical professional if you believe that you might have hepatitis.

Some people are asymptomatic whereas other people have tell-tale signs that they’re suffering from liver inflammation and hepatitis. This can include a certain yellow hue to the skin, yellowing around the whites of your eyes (your eye’s sclera), vomiting, fatigue, poor appetite, and abdominal issues.

Abdominal and digestive issues for those suffering from hepatitis can range from poor appetite and poor digestion to mild to moderate stomach pain as well as diarrhea. These symptoms can be serious in their own right because they can further distort your fluid imbalances.

  • Acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, and Liver Failure
If these symptoms are left to develop untended by a medical professional and you ultimately have hepatitis then your acute hepatitis could develop into chronic hepatitis. This can cause pronounced liver inflammation for many years and exacerbate the severity of your symptoms.

Temporary hepatitis is known as acute hepatitis whereas long-term hepatitis is known as chronic hepatitis – chronic means that a condition last a long time and the suffix “-itis” in medical terminology indicates that there’s some kind of inflammation going on in a particular organ or part of the body.

Acute hepatitis can clear up on its own or be prevented from devolving into chronic hepatitis with the help of a vaccine. For instance, the hepatitis B virus can very easily be prevented from worsening and causing someone to develop liver failure simply with the use of the hepatitis B vaccine. Talk to your medical professional about that possibility if you’ve been diagnosed with this potentially serious condition.

The five “letter” hepatitis types (A, B, C, D, and E) are spread predominately through contaminated water and food, although some types can be transmitted through birth or sexual contact (e.g., in the case of hepatitis B). Hundreds of millions of people are affected by hepatitis worldwide, so vaccines should be considered a front-line treatment.

Tips for the Flu Virus

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Athena Coloma, LPM administers a flu shot at the Latham Medical Group in Latham, N.Y. Thursday, Nov. 10, 2011. (Lori Van Buren / Times Union)

The flu virus is an ‘airborne’ virus, meaning the flu virus is in the air, and all you have to do is share airspace with someone who has got the flu. You are likely to come down with the same flu symptoms in a few days.

The year before the following year the CDC is busy calculating many types of virus strains that are going to make up the coming year’s flu vaccines.

The CDC arrives at these calculations according to,

  • How many people got the flu the previous year
  • How many people hospitalized
  • How many deaths occurred due to the flu strain
  • What the symptoms were that the majority of people displayed
  • The type of strain the majority of individuals contacted.
Use common sense. What this means is doing things no differently than you do all year around and practice some simple techniques that you need to be doing all the time.

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Wash your hands frequently when out and when at home using this method.

  • Turn on the water with your bare hands
  • Use an ample amount of soap and scrub hands, fingers, between fingers and over the wrist.
  • Rinse hands
  • While the water is running, dry off your hands with clean paper towels or if there is an air dryer use that. Dry hands thoroughly, this is important.
  • Grab a fresh, dry paper towel, fold it in half and use it to turn off the water, and then discard the paper in the trash. Do not touch the side of the paper that touched the faucet.
If you turn off the faucets with wet paper towels, any harmful bacteria on the faucets can filter through the wet paper, back onto your hands.

Carry hand sanitizer and use it often.

If you have flu symptoms, fever, achy body, cough, sneezing, headache, stay home as you are contagious to others.

Whenever you cough or sneeze, cover your mouth and nose with your hand if you do not have time to grab a Kleenex or use the crook of your arm, then bring out your hand sanitizer before you touch anything.

Wear a mask if you suspect you have the flu and have to go outside in the public.

If you do not have the flu but are going to be around someone who does, wear a mask.

If your city reports a flu epidemic and it seems to be spreading, wear a mask.

Drink 8, 8 ounces of water every day, unless your doctor advises you not to drink this much.

Eat a well-balanced meal three times a day, kicking up your fruits.

Be sure to get your flu vaccine every year as soon as it is available unless you have an allergy to the vaccine.

  • Some people complain of always coming down with the flu after a flu vaccination, but this is not possible because the virus in a flu vaccination is a dead virus. Thus, it cannot give you the flu.
  • You may experience some symptoms of the flu after a flu vaccination, and this is normal, although many people do not experience any side effects.
  • Just because you get the flu shot, it is no guarantee that you will not get the flu. However, the CDC says the flu vaccination lessens the symptom of the flu should you get it. Your flu is not as hard on your body.
Be sure to get your pneumonia shot at least every five years unless you are allergic to this vaccine. The flu can attack the lungs, increasing the risk of pneumonia.

Pulmonary Lung Diseases

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Millions of people are diagnosed with lung disease that is caused by smoking, genetics, and infections. Lung disease makes the lungs incapable of performing its duties that are bringing oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide from the system. There are the lung diseases in various categories.

Lung diseases affecting the airway

Lung diseases that affect the trachea and bronchi include:

  • Asthma that usually occurs due to an inflamed airway.
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that causes one to have difficulty breathing normally.
  • Chronic bronchitis that is a form of COPD but with a productive cough.
  • Emphysema that makes the lungs trap air inside and is characterized by difficulty in breathing out air.
  • Acute bronchitis that is caused by a sudden viral infection.
  • Cystic fibrosis that is a genetic disorder where mucus is not cleared from the bronchi properly resulting in repeated lung infections.

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Lung diseases that affect the air sacs/ alveoli

The air sacs make up most of the lung volume. Diseases that affect them include:

  • Pneumonia that is a bacterial infection affecting the alveoli.
  • Tuberculosis that is a bacterial infection that turns into a slow progressive pneumonia.
  • Emphysema that damages the delicate connections between the alveoli.
  • Pulmonary edema where fluid leaks out of the blood vessels into the air sacs and surrounding areas. It is caused by heart failure and low pressure in the lungs.
  • Lung cancer that mainly develops in the air sacs.
  • Acute respiratory stress syndrome that is severe lung damage caused by a serious infection or illness.
  • Pneumoconiosis that is a series of infections caused by inhaling substances that injure the lungs like coal dust and asbestos.

Lung diseases that affect the interstitium

The interstitium is a thin and delicate lining between the alveoli. It allows for gas exchange since the blood vessels run through the interstitium. These lung diseases affect it.

  • Interstitial lung disease that is a wide range of infections that affect the interstitium.
  • Pneumonia and pulmonary edemas

Lung diseases that affect the blood vessels in the lungs

There are vessels that come from the heart to the lungs and vice versa. These vessels include arteries and veins and can get the following diseases.

  • Pulmonary embolism that occurs when a blood clot travels to the heart usually from the leg. The clot then gets pumped to the lungs and blocks the pulmonary artery causing shortness of breath, and you also have low blood oxygen levels.
  • Pulmonary hypertension that occurs due to different things. It causes pressure to the pulmonary artery leading to chest pain and shortness of breath. It is called pulmonary arterial hypertension if the cause is not identified.

Lung diseases that affect the pleura

The pleura is a thin lining surrounding the lungs and inside the chest with a layer of fluid to allow easy movement. Diseases that affect the pleura include:

  • Pleural effusion that is when fluid collects in the space between the chest wall and the lung.
  • Pneumothorax that occurs when air enters the space between the lung and chest wall causing lung collapse.
  • Mesothelioma that is rare cancer that develops on the pleura.

Lung diseases that affect the chest wall

The chest wall contains the rib cage that encloses the lungs and diaphragm. Diseases affecting it include:

  • Obesity hypoventilation syndrome where the extra weight on the chest makes it difficult for chest expansion to take place.
  • Neuromuscular disorders that is when the nerves in the respiratory system function poorly causing difficulty in breathing.

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